Artikel Grafologi dari KAROHS International School of Handwriting Analysis
Source: Encyclopedia For Handwriting Analysis, volume 14
Copyright © 1986-2018 Dr. Erika M. Karohs, Pebble Beach, CA. All Rights Reserved.
The mentally healthy person is basically courageous and open. Because he is not afraid he can look calmly at the world around him. He can tolerate risks and uncertainty. He looks at alternatives and from those options available to him he picks the most reasonable course of action.
It is quite different with the passive-dependent and passive-aggressive personalities whose way of being and living is rigidly fixed. They follow an immutable pattern that severely limits his potential for effective functioning and satisfying interpersonal relationships.
The passive-aggressive personality’s behavior is characterized by immaturity and failure to develop an adequate balance between dependence and independence, and between aggressiveness and submissiveness.  There is usually evidence of little anxiety or personality conflict. He shows extensive inability to deal with interpersonal relationships, expressing himself in one of three patterns: passive-dependent, passive-aggressive, and aggressive.
⇒ Passive-dependent personality
The passive-dependent personality is timid, helpless and totally lacking in self-confidence. He has the tendency to constantly manipulate relationships with others so that he will be taken care of or given emotional support or direction. Suffering ostentatiously or looking pitiful may be such a security operation. By appearing awkward or ill, the writer forestalls what he senses to be imminent attacks by others. (These individuals were usually raised by dominant parents, and reacted by repressing their resentment and becoming overly submissive).
⇒ Passive-aggressive personality
In the passive-aggressive type, hostile urges are closer to the surface and hostility is vented through passive means. He displays a sullen, disgruntled attitude. He expresses resentment through failing to do what is expected of him. While he seems to acquiesce to the desires and needs of others, he actually passively resists and becomes increasingly hostile and angry.
The writer is apparently capable of complying with what is requested but does nothing. Usually, there is no overt opposition such as blatant refusal to comply. Rather, there is an apparently cooperative attitude but no resulting action. The writer may postpone decisions, or constantly raise objections, or take ineffective action that is designed to frustrate others.
These people resent responsibility and show it through their behavior rather than by open expression of their feelings. Procrastination, inefficiency, and forgetful ness are behaviors commonly used to avoid doing what they need to do or have been told by others must be done.
The passive-aggressive person may appear to comply with another’s wishes, and may even say that he wants to do what he has agreed to do, but the requested action is either performed too late to be helpful, performed in a way that is useless, or otherwise sabotaged to express anger about compliance that isn’t related verbally.
The writer feels no inner commitment; he has no sense of satisfaction or pride in his own ability. He will run away or act helplessly because of his inability to direct himself effectively. He becomes easily confused, easily distraught, and he is unreasonably demanding.
One characteristic that is exceptionally well developed is the ability to outguess others’ intentions toward him so that he can take immediate action to protect himself. (This behavior pattern can sometimes be traced to childhood, in particular, to suppressed anger against an over-demanding or over-critical father).
Side-effects are stunted career-development despite good intelligence, or alcohol abuse, or other drug abuse and dependence.
The most important graphological signs of the passive-aggressive personality include:
t-bars and i-dots to left of letter
- Avoidance of responsibility
Sinking lines, words, step-down alignment
- Blaming others
Shark’s teeth in middle zone letters
Long initial strokes
After a right-tending diagonal upstroke, the downstroke of t’s or k’s is slightly curved toward the left.
- Secretiveness (does not express hostility or anger openly
Looped oval letters
- Fears or resents authority
k-buckles into upper zone
- Narrow-mindedness (resists suggestions from others)
Narrow e’s, narrow upper zone loops
- Intentional inefficiency
Letter parts are placed vertically below the other instead of horizontally next to each other (this happens above the baseline).
 In DSM-II (Psychiatric Nomenclature), the passive-aggressive personality is included in the classification of personality disorders. DMS-II emphasizes that personality disorders are deeply ingrained maladaptive patterns of behavior. They are often recognizable by the time of adolescence or earlier. They are extremely difficult to change and have no organic basis. Individuals with personality disorders have grown up without acquiring the skills needed to manage his or her affairs and get along with others in society. They are seldom seen by health care professionals, even though the incidence is high. Nevertheless, personality disorders have a wide range of effect on society and cause discomfort for the disordered individual as well as for the people with whom they interact.
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